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REFERENCE MATERIALS
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GLOSSARY OF SAUSAGES AND PREPARED MEATS

Sausages and meats are listed alphabetically. The group to which each sausage belongs is indicated next to the name of the sausage.

Alessandri
See Salami.

Alpino
See Salami.

Arles
See Salami.

Bangers (British or Scottish Style, made in USA)
Sausage-like product prepared with meat and varying amounts of rusk or other cereals.

Beef Bologna
See Bologna.

Beef, Dried -- (prepared meat)
Also known as "chipped"; long cured product made from beef round; cured, smoked, dehydrated and thinly sliced. Available in cans, jars and
vacuum packages.

Beef, Salami
See Salami.

Beef, Sliced -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made from boneless beef; chopped, cooked, smoked and sliced; moist, not dehydrated; more perishable than dried beef. Available in vacuum packages.

Beef Loaf, Jellied -- (cooked meat specialty)
Cooked beef, shredded and molded with gelatin, and cooked in loaf or roll. Also available are Jellied Tongue, Jellied Corned Beef and Jellied Veal Loaf.

Beerwurst
See Salami.

Berliner-Style Sausage -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Made of cured, coarsely ground pork and some mildly cured, finely chopped beef; contains no seasoning other than sugar and salt; available in rolls or packaged slices.

Blood Sausage -- (cooked sausage)
Diced, cooked fat pork, finely ground cooked meat, and gelatin-producing materials mixed with beef blood and spices.

Blood and Tongue Sausage -- (cooked sausage)
Cooked lamb and pork tongues are arranged lengthwise in the center of a roll of blood sausage.

Blutwurst
See Blood Sausage.

Bockwurst (fresh sausage or cooked sausage)
Made of veal and pork (generally higher proportion of veal), with milk, chives, eggs and chopped parsley; seasoning is similar to frankfurters, but may have additional condiments; available fresh or parboiled; highly perishable; requires thorough cooking.

Bologna -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Originated in Bologna, Italy; made of cured beef and pork, finely ground, with seasonings similar to frankfurters; available in rings, rolls or slices of varying diameters; fully cooked and ready to serve.
• BEEF BOLOGNA is made exclusively of beef and has a definite garlic flavour.
• CHUB BOLOGNA is a smooth mixture of beef and pork with bacon added.
• HAM-STYLE BOLOGNA contains large cubes of lean cured pork.

Boterhamworst -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Dutch-style sausage made of veal and pork, finely chopped and blended with coarsely chopped pork fat and seasonings.

Bratwurst -- (fresh sausage, cooked or smoked sausage)
Pork or a pork and veal mixture; highly seasoned; made in links and available both fresh and fully cooked.

Braunschweiger -- (cooked sausage)
Liver sausage which has been smoked after cooking, or includes smoked meat as ingredients.

Capacolla -- (prepared meat)
Italian origin; boneless pork shoulder butt seasoned with ground red hot or sweet peppers, paprika, salt and sugar; mildly cured and air dried.

Cervelat -- (semi-dry sausage)
General classification for mildly seasoned smoked, semi-dry sausages. Popularly termed "Summer Sausage".

  • FARMER CERVELAT contains equal parts of coarsely chopped pork and beef; cured, dried and delicately seasoned, without garlic.
  • GOETTINGER CERVELAT is a high quality dry, hard sausage; pork and beef; delightfully spiced.
  • GOTEBORG CERVELAT is made of coarsely chopped pork and beef; heavily smoked, seasoning is salty and somewhat sweet from the spice, cardamom; of Swedish origin.
  • GOTHAER is a cervelat of German origin; made only of very lean pork, finely chopped and cured.
  • HOLSTEINER CERVELAT is similar to farmer cervelat, but packed in a ring-shaped style.
  • LANDJAEGER CERVELAT is a semi-dry sausage of Swiss origin; beef and pork; heavily smoked with a black, wrinkled appearance; in links the size of large franks, but pressed flat.
  • THURINGER CERVELAT is a popular semi-dry sausage made of beef and ham or pork fat; distinctive tangy flavour; mildly spiced.

Chopped Ham -- See Ham, Chopped.

Chorizo -- (dry sausage)
Dry pork sausage of Spanish origin; meat coarsely cut; smoked; highly spiced and has a size similar to large frankfurters, one-inch links also made for sausage balls.

Chub Bologna -- See Bologna.

Corned Beef, Jellied -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made from precooked, lean corned beef which is shredded and mixed with pure gelatin, formed into a loaf and cooked.

Cotto Salami -- See Salami.

Deviled Ham -- (cooked canned meat specialty)
Whole hams are finely ground and seasoned. Popular as a spread or a base for dips.

Dutch Loaf -- See Old Fashioned Loaf.

Farmer Cervelat -- See Cervelat.

Frankfurters -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Originated in Frankfurt, Germany; combination of beef and pork or all beef which is cured, smoked and cooked; seasonings may include coriander, garlic, ground mustard, nutmeg, salt, sugar and white pepper; fully cooked but usually served hot; terms "frankfurter," "wiener" and "hot dog" often used interchangeably; sizes range from big dinner frankfurters to tiny cocktail size; may be skinless or with natural casings.

Frizzes -- (dry sausage)
Cured lean pork, chopped coarsely and a small quantity of cured lean beef; highly spiced. Some varieties made with hot spices, some with sweet spices.

Garlic Sausage
See Knackwurst.

Genoa Salami
See Salami, Italian.

Goetta -- (cooked meat specialty)
Fully cooked sausage of German origin similar to scrapple; made with ground pork and/or beef, oats, herbs and spices; available in rolls and slab form.

Goettinger Cervelat
See Cervelat.

Goteberg Cervelat
See Cervelat.

Gothaer
See Cervelat.

Ham, Cooked -- (prepared meat)
Most prepared ham is steam or water cooked and therefore is generally known as "boiled ham;" cured, molded and fully cooked; sold whole or sliced and packaged.

Ham, Chopped -- (cooked meat specialty)
Firm loaf made of ground, chipped or cubed cured pork; ham-like in color and flavour.

Ham and Cheese Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Loaf made of ground ham with cubes of firm cheese.

Head Cheese -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made from chopped, cured pork head meat in a gelatin base; attractive and colorful.

Honey Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Meat mixture similar to franks and bologna; contains about equal parts of pork and beef. Flavourings include honey, spices and sometimes pickles and/or pimentos.

Holsteiner Cervelat
See Cervelat.

Kielbasa
See Polish Sausage.

Knackwurst -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Similar in ingredients to franks and bologna with garlic added for stronger flavour; made in wide natural casings or in skinless styles; fully cooked, but usually served hot; also known as Knoblouch or Garlic Sausage.

Old Fashioned Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made of carefully selected lean pork with enough beef to add flavour and firmness of texture to the loaf.

Olive Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Blend of lean pork and beef chopped to a fine texture, seasoned and mixed with whole, stuffed olives.

Pastrami -- (prepared meat)
Flat pieces of lean beef, dry cured, rubbed with paste of spices and smoked.

Peppered Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Pressed beef and pork loaf; distinctive seasoning of cracked peppercorns.

Pickle and Pimento Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made from finely chopped lean pork and beef with sweet pickles and pimentos added.

Polish Sausage -- (uncooked, smoked sausage)
Coarsely ground lean pork with beef added; highly seasoned with garlic; frequently referred to as Kielbasa which was originally a Polish word for all sausage.

Pork Sausage, Fresh -- (fresh sausage)
Made only from selected fresh pork; seasoned with black pepper, nutmeg, and rubbed sage, or other spices; sold in links, packaged patties or bulk; thorough cooking is required.

Pork Sausage, Italian Style -- (fresh sausage)
Fresh pork sausage, highly seasoned; cook thoroughly.

Pork Sausage, Smoked Country Style -- (uncooked, smoked sausage)
Fresh pork sausage, mildly cured and smoked; cook thoroughly.

Proscuitto -- (prepared meat)
Dry-cured ham; flattened; surface rubbed with spices.

Salami -- (dry sausage)
General classification for highly seasoned dry sausage with characteristic fermented flavour. Usually made of beef and pork; seasoned with garlic, salt, pepper and sugar. Most are air dried and not smoked or cooked. The cooked salamis are not dry sausage.

  • ALESSANDRI AND ALPINO SALAMI are Italian-type salamis of American origin. (See below, Italian Salami).
  • ARLES is a salami of French origin; similar to Milano, but made of coarsely chopped meat. (See below, Milano Salami).
  • BEERWURST, BEER SALAMI is a cooked sausage of German origin; beef and pork, chopped and blended; seasoning includes garlic; cooked at high temperatures; smoked. Packaged in slices or in bulk rolls for slicing. (See below, Cooked Salami).
  • CALABRESE SALAMI is a dry sausage of Italian origin; usually made from all pork; seasoned with hot peppers.
  • COOKED SALAMI is made from fresh meats, which are cured, stuffed in casings, then cooked in the smokehouse at high temperatures. May be air-dried for a short time; softer texture than dry and semi-dry sausages. Cooked salamis are not dry sausage. They belong to the cooked sausage group and must be refrigerated.
  • COTTO SALAMI is a cooked salami; contains whole peppercorns; may be smoked as well as cooked. (See cooked Salami).
  • EASTER NOLA is a dry sausage of Italian origin; coarsely chopped pork; mildly seasoned; spices include black peppers and garlic.
  • GENOA SALAMI is a dry sausage of Italian origin; usually made from all pork but may contain a small portion of beef; moistened with wine or grape juice; seasoned with garlic; a cord is wrapped lengthwise and around the sausage at regular intervals.
  • GERMAN SALAMI is less highly flavoured and more heavily smoked than Italian; contains garlic.
  • HUNGARIAN SALAMI is less highly flavoured and more heavily smoked that Italian salami; contains garlic.
  • ITALIAN SALAMI includes many varieties named for towns and localities, e.g., Genoa, Milano, Sicilian; principally cured lean pork, coarsely chopped and some finely chopped lean beef; frequently moistened with red wine or grape juice; usually highly seasoned with garlic and various spices; air dried; chewy texture.
  • KOSHER SALAMI is an all-beef cooked salami. The meat and the processing are under Rabbinical supervision; mustard, coriander and nutmeg added to regular seasonings. (See Italian Salami).
  • SICILIAN SALAMI -- See above, Salami, Italian.

Salsiccia -- (fresh sausage)
Made of finely cut pork; highly spiced; unlinked; Italian origin.

Scrapple -- (cooked meat specialty)
Ground cooked pork combined with cornmeal; other flours may be used in small amounts; available in loaf, brick or rolls, canned.

Souse of Sulz -- (cooked meat specialty)
Similar to headcheese except for sweet-sour flavour added by vinegar pickling liquid; dill pickles, sweet red peppers and bay leaves sometimes added.

Smokies -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Coarsely ground beef and pork; seasoned with black pepper; stuffed and linked like frankfurters.

Thuringer Cervelat -- See Cervelat.

Thuringer-Style Sausage -- (fresh sausage or cooked sausage)
Made principally of ground pork; may also include veal and beef; seasoning similar to pork sausage, except no sage is used; may be smoked or unsmoked.

Tongue, Cooked -- (prepared meat)
Most cooked pork, lamb and veal tongue is cured and either canned or packaged in plastic; sometimes smoked. Beef tongue is available whole, jellied, or in slices.

Veal Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
The meat in the loaf is primarily veal with some pork.

Vienna Sausage -- (semi-dry sausage)
Properly refers to all dry sausage; generally refers to mildly seasoned soft cervelat.

Vienna Sausage -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Ingredients similar to frankfurters. Term most often applied to small, open end sausages packed in cans of water. These are made into 80-foot lengths and cut into two-inch portions for canning. The name, vienna-style sausage, may also be used inte rchangeably with wiener or frankfurter.

Weisswurst -- (fresh sausage)
Of German origin, the name means "white sausage;" made of pork and veal; mildly spices; links are about four inches long and plump; very
perishable.

Wiener -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Both wieners and Vienna-style sausages take their names from the city of Vienna, Austria. Wiener-style, as originated, is sausage braided in groups of links. Vienna-style frankfurters are twisted into a chain of links. Terms are frequently used interchangeably with "frankfurter" and formula may be the same. (See frankfurter)

This glossary is reprinted with the kind permission of the American Meat Institute, and the National Hot Dog and Sausage Council. For more information, please visit the AMI website at www.meatami.com and the National Hot Dog and Sausage Council website at www.hot-dog.org.

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In This Section
Additional Reference
Glossary of Common Terms
Glossary of Sausages
Nutritional Labelling Guide
On-Line Resources
Weights and Measures
Concentrations

Crushed Red Pepper

 

 
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